Orthopedic Surgery: An orthopaedic surgeon is trained in the preservation, investigation and restoration of the form and function of the extremities, spine and associated structures by medical, surgical and physical means including the patients with musculoskeletal problems which include congenital deformities, trauma, infections, tumors, metabolic disturbances of the musculoskeletal system, deformities, injuries and degenerative diseases of the spine, hands, feet, knee, hip, shoulder and elbow in children and adults. Patients with primary and secondary muscular problems and the effects of central or peripheral nervous system lesions of the musculoskeletal system are also concerned.
Pediatric Orthopedic: An orthopaedic surgeon who has done additional training and experience in diagnosing, treating and managing musculoskeletal problems in infants, children and adolescents. These may include limb and spine deformities (such as club foot, scoliosis); gait abnormalities (limping); bone and joint infections; broken bones.
Hand and Elbow Orthopedic: An orthopaedic surgeon is trained in the investigation, preservation and restoration by medical, surgical and rehabilitative means of all structures of the upper extremity directly affecting the form and function of the hand and wrist.
Hip and Knee Replacement Orthopedic: An orthopaedic surgeon who deals with reconstructive procedures such as joint arthroplasty (i.e., hip and knee), osteotomy, arthroscopy, soft-tissue reconstruction, and a variety of other adult reconstructive surgical procedures.
Spine Orthopedic: An orthopaedic surgeon who deals with the evaluation and nonoperative and operative treatment of the full spectrum of primary spinal disorders including trauma, degenerative, deformity, tumor, and reconstructive.
Foot and Ankle Orthopedic: An orthopaedic surgeon who deals with adult reconstructive foot and ankle surgery, adult foot and ankle trauma, sports medicine foot and ankle, and children's foot and ankle reconstructive surgery.
Sports Orthopedic: An orthopaedic surgeon who is trained in sports medicine which help to provide appropriate care for all structures of the musculoskeletal system directly affected by participation in sporting activity.